After identifying a list of items to be validated, the authors consulted experts in the field of nutrition, psychology, medicine, and basic sciences. Each phase of development progressively improved the questionnaire, which resulted in a item 42 likert-type items and 4 true-false items Food and Nutrition Literacy FNLIT scale. In some cases, it has been recommended that such positively discriminating items be considered for revision 70 as the differences could be due to the level of difficulty of the item. Abstract Scale development and validation are critical to much of the work in the health, social, and behavioral sciences. In the last phase confirmatory phase , the final version of the questionnaire was evaluated on students.
Expert judges evaluate each of the items to determine whether they represent the domain of interest. To calculate this, respondents will be grouped into three groups—high, middle, and lower tertiles based on their total scores on a set of items. For cases where modern missing data handling can be used, however, several techniques exist to solve the problem of missing cases. Item Reduction Analysis In scale development, item reduction analysis is conducted to ensure that only parsimonious, functional, and internally consistent items are ultimately included However, the constellation of techniques required for scale development and evaluation can be onerous, jargon-filled, unfamiliar, and resource-intensive. Further, in the development of items, the form of the items, the wording of the items, and the types of responses that the question is designed to induce should be taken into account. This can be done through literature review and assessment of existing scales and indicators of that domain 2 , For instance, researchers interested in general purpose scales will focus on items with medium difficulty 68 , i. The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess food and nutrition literacy in elementary school children in the city of Tehran. The second phase, scale development, i. The necessary sample size is dependent on several aspects of any given study, including the level of variation between the variables, and the level of over-determination i. It is recommended that the items identified using deductive and inductive approaches should be broader and more comprehensive than one's own theoretical view of the target 28 , Description of model fit indices and thresholds for evaluating scales developed for health, social, and behavioral research. Data from longitudinal studies can be used for initial scale development e. A domain or construct refers to the concept, attribute, or unobserved behavior that is the target of the study Two independent reviews were carried out by a panel of five experts to select the questions that were appropriate, accurate, and interpretable. These are all based on thorough literature review and include a specifying the purpose of the domain or construct you seek to develop, and b , confirming that there are no existing instruments that will adequately serve the same purpose. To develop Food and Nutrition Literacy FNLIT questionnaire, a comprehensive literature review and a qualitative study were initially performed to identify food and nutrition literacy dimensions and its components. A smaller sample size or respondent: EFA suggested a six-factor construct, namely, understanding food and nutrition information, knowledge, functional, interactive, food choice, and critical. These include that a the behavioral content has a generally accepted meaning or definition; b the domain is unambiguously defined; c the content domain is relevant to the purposes of measurement; d qualified judges agree that the domain has been adequately sampled based on consensus; and e the response content must be reliably observed and evaluated The questionnaire measured two domains with 6 subscales, including: Eight items were dropped after cognitive interviews for lack of clarity or importance. The extraction of factors can also be used to reduce items. To do this, we have created a primer for best practices for scale development. Survey Administration and Sample Size Survey Administration Collecting data with minimum measurement errors from an adequate sample size is imperative. Hence, it is often recommended to retain items that have factor loadings of 0.
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