Sex offender registries in the United States consist of federal and state level systems designed to collect information of convicted sex offenders for law enforcement and public notification purposes. Sex offender registries in the United States Sign at the limits of Wapello, Iowa ; sex offender-free districts appeared as a result of Megan's Law. New Zealand[ edit ] The New Zealand government has plans to introduce a sex offenders register by the end of In the United States offenders are often classified in three categories: The study also showed that blocks in Washington DC where sex offenders lived did not have higher molestation rates than blocks where sex offenders did not live.
The Supreme Court of the United States has upheld sex offender registration laws twice, in two respects. It records the details of anyone convicted of a sexual offence against a child or a mentally disabled person. Some sex offenders may come to view their central identity as being that of a sex offender due to the registry, and the more a sex offender views themselves as being a criminal the more likely they are to reoffend. Thus, identical offenses committed in different states could produce very different outcomes in terms of public disclosure and registration period. Sex offenders who have completed probation or parole may also be subject to restrictions above and beyond those of most felons. Montana, for example, has a publicly accessible violent offender registry that includes crimes such as aggravated assault, robbery, assaulting a police officer, both deliberate and non-deliberate homicide and a third conviction for domestic violence. Application to offenses other than felony sexual offenses[ edit ] Sex offender registration has been applied to crimes other than rape, child molestation, and child pornography offenses and is sometimes applied to certain non-sexual offenses. However political lobby group the Sensible Sentencing Trust has criticised the proposed register for its lack of public access. A study by professors from Columbia University and the University of Michigan found that having police-only sex offender registries e. Like the Australian and British registers, the New Zealand sex offenders register will not be accessible to the general public but only to officials with security clearance. Sex offender registries in the United States Sign at the limits of Wapello, Iowa ; sex offender-free districts appeared as a result of Megan's Law. Some states appear to apply "catch-all" statutes for former registrants moving into their jurisdiction, requiring registration and public posting of information, even when the person has completed their original registration period. For example, residency restrictions will make it harder for a sex offender's spouse and children, not just a sex offender themselves, to find housing. This Sex Offenders Registry is only accessible to the Police Service and other branches of government. According to ATSA , only in the states that utilize empirically derived risk assessment procedures and publicly identify only high risk offenders, has community notification demonstrated some effectiveness. Kansas has publicly accessible registries of people convicted of both serious drug offenses and people convicted of crimes involving a weapon. It will be managed by the New Zealand Police and information will be shared between the Police, Child, Youth and Family , the Department of Corrections , the Ministry of Social Development , and the Department of Building and Housing —government agencies which deal with child safety. In New York specifically, kidnapping and unlawful imprisonment are registerable offenses only if the victim is under 17 and the offender is not a parent of the victim. Civil right groups,   law reform activists,    academics,   some child safety advocates,       politicians  and law enforcement officials  think that current laws often target the wrong people, swaying attention away from high-risk sex offenders, while severely impacting lives of all registrants,     and their families,   attempting to re-integrate to society. A bill to create a publicly accessible registry for domestic violence offenders passed the Texas House of Representatives in , but was not voted on in the Texas Senate. Ohio has a publicly accessible registry for people convicted five or more times of drunken driving. There are several gaps in this policy noted by members of the Caribbean Committee against Sex Crimes, most notably that the registry only deals with offenses committed within the Jurisdiction of Trinidad and Tobago. Sex offender registries in the United States consist of federal and state level systems designed to collect information of convicted sex offenders for law enforcement and public notification purposes. In some jurisdictions, they cannot live within a certain distance of places children or families gather. The thought of getting on the sex offender registry may or may not deter non-sex offenders from committing sex crimes.
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