Ek Prem Katha , Lagaan , Koi In the early 20th century, Urdu was the lingua franca of popular cultural performances across northern India, established in popular performance art traditions such as nautch dancing, Urdu poetry , and Parsi theater. He was the most successful Indian actor for most of the s and s.
The name "Tollywood" went on to be used as a nickname for the Bengali film industry by the popular Calcutta-based Junior Statesman youth magazine, establishing a precedent for other film industries to use similar-sounding names, eventually leading to the coining of "Bollywood". The masala film was pioneered in the early s by filmmaker Nasir Hussain ,  along with screenwriter duo Salim-Javed,  pioneering the Bollywood blockbuster format. Both these trends, the masala film and the violent crime film, are represented by the blockbuster Sholay , written by Salim-Javed and starring Amitabh Bachchan. Kumar, who was described as "the ultimate method actor" by Satyajit Ray and is considered one of India's greatest actors, inspired future generations of Indian actors; much like Brando's influence on Robert De Niro and Al Pacino , Kumar had a similar influence on later Indian actors such as Amitabh Bachchan , Naseeruddin Shah , Shah Rukh Khan and Nawazuddin Siddiqui. Classic Bollywood s—s The screenwriting duo Salim-Javed , consisting of Salim Khan l and Javed Akhtar r , revolutionized Indian cinema in the s,  and are considered Bollywood's greatest screenwriters. The devotional classic Jai Santoshi Ma was also released in Ek Prem Katha , Lagaan , Koi He has been the most successful Indian actor since the late s. Prior to the partition of India , which was divided into the Republic of India and Pakistan , the Bombay film industry now called Bollywood was closely to the Lahore film industry now the Lollywood industry of Pakistani cinema , as both produced films in Hindi-Urdu , or Hindustani , the lingua franca across northern and central India. The movement emphasized social realism. By the s, the industry was producing over films per annum. These films expressed social themes mainly dealing with working-class life in India , particularly urban life in the former two examples; Awaara presented the city as both a nightmare and a dream, while Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of city life. The One Thousand and One Nights Arabian Nights also had a strong influence, on Parsi theater which performed " Persianate adventure-romances" that were adapted into films, and on early Bombay cinema where "Arabian Nights cinema" was a popular genre. The term "Bollywood" itself has origins in the s, when India overtook the United States as the world's largest film producer. Pyaar Hai , Gadar: Around that time, filmmakers and actors from the Bengali film industry based in Calcutta now Kolkata also began migrating to the Bombay film industry, which for decades after partition would be dominated by actors, filmmakers and musicians with origins in what is today Pakistani Punjab , along with those from Bengal. He was the most successful Indian actor for most of the s and s. However, they demonstrated how this creation intersected with people's day to day lives in complex and interesting ways. The s and s were tumultuous times: At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were the staple fare at the cinema. Examples of this influence include the techniques of a side story , back-story and story within a story. Kareena Kapoor and Bipasha Basu are among the few working actresses from the s who successfully completed 15 years in the industry. It combined the dacoit film conventions of Mother India and Gunga Jumna with that of Spaghetti Westerns , spawning the Dacoit Western genre also known as the " Curry Western " , which was popular in the s. The critical and commercial success of Satya led to the emergence of a distinct genre known as Mumbai noir ,  urban films reflecting social problems in the city of Mumbai. The s thus saw the rise of commercial cinema in the form of enduring films such as Sholay , which consolidated Amitabh Bachchan 's position as a lead actor.
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